زمان تقریبی مطالعه: ۹ دقیقه

پادکست BBC شماره ۱۷۶

سلام با صد و هفتاد و ششمین سری از پادکست‌های BBC 6 Minute English در خدمت شما هستیم.

در این قسمت درباره آلرژی‌ها یا همون حساسیت‌های غذایی صحبت میشه. آیا روش‌های صنعتی تولید مواد غذایی باعث افزایش روز افزون حساسیت‌های عجیب و غریب در مناطق مختلف دنیا شده؟ دست کاری انسان در اکوسیستم حیواناتی که از فرآورده‌های اون تغذیه می‌کنیم، دلیل آلرژی‌های ناشناخته هست؟

در زیر کلمات کلیدی که باید با آن‌ها آشنا شوید برایتان توضیح داده شده‌اند:

allergy : a condition that makes you feel ill after eating, touching or breathing in a particular substance

allergy : آلرژی، حساسیت

immune system : our body’s defences against infection and disease

immune system : سیستم ایمنی بدن

switched off : (in this context) not working

switched off : در این جا) کار نمی کند)

colonise : live and grow in

colonise : بزرگ شدن در

get exposed to : (in this context) meet or encounter

get exposed to : در این جا) ملاقات یا برخورد)

sterile : completely clean with no bacteria

sterile : استریل، کاملا تمیز

gluten : a protein found in wheat and some other grains

gluten : پروتئین موجود در گندم و برخی از غلات دیگر

proven : tested or true

proven : اثبات شده

rickets : a disease caused by a lack of Vitamin D in the diet and affects bone development in children

rickets : بیماری ناشی از کمبود ویتامین دی در رژیم غذایی و بر رشد استخوان در کودکان تأثیر می گذارد

malnourished : not having enough to eat or enough of the food you need to keep you in good health

malnourished : سوء تغذیه

nuts : crazy

nuts : دیوانه

anaphylaxis : a severe allergic reaction

anaphylaxis : یک واکنش آلرژیک شدید

Transcript of the podcast

پادکست BBC شماره 176 - Are we afraid of food

پادکست BBC 6 minute English – Are we afraid of food

Neil
Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I’m Neil…

Alice
… and I’m Alice. Neil, what are you eating?

Neil
Peanuts.

Alice
Hmm. Did you know that one of the producers, here, has an allergy to peanuts? 

Neil
No, I didn’t – but they’re not in the studio with us, so it doesn’t matter, does it?

Alice
It only takes a tiny piece of peanut to cause a big allergic reaction in some people. An allergy by the way, is a condition that makes you feel ill after eating, touching or breathing in a particular substance.

حتما این پست را بخوانید   پادکست BBC شماره 27 - The future of food

Neil
And food allergies are the subject of today’s show.

Alice
Alright, put your peanuts down, Neil and answer today’s quiz question. What substance is used to treat a severe allergic reaction? Is it…
a) penicillin?
b) adrenalin?
Or c) aspirin?

Neil
OK, well, I’m going to go for a) penicillin.

Alice
Well, we’ll find out if that’s the right answer later on. Now let’s listen to Dr Marianne Williams talking about why being too clean may not be a good thing. She is a dietician here in the UK.

INSERT
Dr Marianne Williams, gastroenterology dietician, UK
For roughly the first month of life the immune system is switched off in essence and everything they [babies] get exposed to in that first month in life – dogs, cats, aunts, uncles, grannies, grandpas, family, dirt – everything – that is where they build up all the bacteria that are then going to colonise their gut in the future. Now, if you’re born into a very sterile environment, as is increasingly the case in the western world, everything’s kept terribly clean, and one of the theories is that we just are not getting enough exposure to a variety of bacteria at that very very early stage in that first month of life.

Alice
Dr Marianne Williams. The immune system is our body’s defence against infection. And it’s switched off – or not working – for the first month of a baby’s life.

Neil
And through exposure to lots of things in our environment – that’s family, pets, dirt and so on – young babies meet different bacteria for the first time which colonise – or live and grow in – their guts.

Alice
Yes, but in a sterile environment babies don’t get exposed to – or don’t meet – a wide enough variety of bacteria. Sterile means completely clean and free of bacteria. And there’s a theory that being too clean and bacteria-free – now we have soap, antibiotics and better sanitation – has lead to an increase in allergies.

حتما این پست را بخوانید   دوره زبان انگلیسی بزرگسالان

Neil
So dirty play for babies is good – mud, pets, picking stuff up off the floor and eating it.

Alice
Did you use to eat food off the floor when you were little, Neil?

Neil
Used to? I still do. I enjoy food from the floor!

Alice
Well, Neil, what can I say? We’re both lucky to be allergy-free. I have a friend who has an allergy to gluten – a protein found in wheat and some other grains – and she has to be very careful about what she eats so she doesn’t get ill.

Neil
The supermarkets are quite helpful, though, aren’t they, with products ‘free from this’ and ‘free from that’?

Alice
This is helpful, yes. But the food industry is now marketing their products to attract consumers who don’t have a proven – or tested – allergy.

Neil
Why would you buy free-from foods if you don’t have a food allergy?

Alice
Well, people have started to believe that certain foods – like gluten or dairy – are bad for us, though there isn’t any medical evidence to support this. Let’s hear about how rickets – a disease caused by a lack of Vitamin D in the diet – is affecting some children in the UK. This is BBC reporter Mike Williams.

INSERT
Mike Williams, BBC reporter
Rickets is common in the developing world but this is London in the 21st century. These children aren’t malnourished because they’re too poor to eat well – it’s the opposite. Their often middle-class parents are spending money to give them foods with ingredients taken out. It’s as if some of us have become unnecessarily frightened of our food.

Neil
Rickets usually affects malnourished childrenfrom poor countries– children who don’t have enough to eat – and it makes their bones weak. But here in London some parents are buying their children expensive free-from foods – for example to avoid dairy – and are sometimes making them very ill.

Alice
It sounds crazy, doesn’t it?

Neil
Yeah… it’s nuts! Get it? Nuts.

Alice
Very good.

Neil
Yes. Nuts – that means crazy. Now I think it’s time for the answer to today’s quiz question.

حتما این پست را بخوانید   پادکست BBC شماره 180 - Giving away your fortune

Alice
OK, then. So earlier in the show I asked: What substance is used to treat a severe allergic reaction? Is it… a) penicillin?  b) adrenalin?  Or c) aspirin?

Neil
I said a) penicillin.

Alice
And you were wrong, Neil! The correct answer is b) adrenalin. An injection of adrenalin can be used to treat anaphylaxis – or severe allergic reactions – to insect stings, foods, drugs, and other allergens. Antibiotics such as penicillin treat bacterial infections and aspirin is a painkiller you might take for a headache.

Neil
OK, can you tell us the words we heard today again please, Alice?

Alice
Sure. They are:
allergy
immune system
switched off
colonise
get exposed to
sterile
gluten
proven
rickets
malnourished
nuts
anaphylaxis

Neil
Well, that’s the end of today’s 6 Minute English. Don’t be afraid to join us again soon.

Alice
You know where to find us, don’t you? Go to bbclearningenglish.com where you’ll find grammar points, vocabulary and more editions of 6 Minute English.

Both
Bye.

برای شنیدن دیگر پادکست ها، به بخش پادکست در مرکز آموزش رایگان مراجعه نمایید.