زمان تقریبی مطالعه: ۸ دقیقه

پادکست BBC شماره ۲۳۶

سلام با دویست و سی و ششمین سری از پادکست‌های BBC 6 Minute English در خدمت شما هستیم.

در این قسمت درباره اینکه آیا می‌شود از روی چشمان به شخصیت یک نفر پی برد؟ صحبت میشه. یافته اصلی در مطالعه دانشمندان این است که می توان فقط به حرکات چشم نگاه کرد و سپس چیزی در مورد شخصیت آنها حدس زد. قبل از مطالعه آنها ، به هیچ وجه مشخص نبود که آیا این امر می تواند از حرکات چشم درباره شخصیت انسانها چیزی دانست.

در زیر کلمات کلیدی که باید با آن‌ها آشنا شوید برایتان توضیح داده شده‌اند:

earworm : a song or tune you repeatedly hear in your head

earworm : آهنگ یا آوایی که مکرراً در گوش خود می شنوید

musical anhedonia : a condition where someone can’t enjoy music

musical anhedonia : شرایطی که کسی نتواند از موسیقی لذت ببرد

likelihood : the chance that something might happen

likelihood : احتمال

classy : stylish and sophisticated

classy : مدرن و باتجربه

manipulate : control, often unfairly

manipulate : دستکاری کردن

tempo : speed at which a piece of music is played

tempo : تمپو، ضرب سریع آهنگ

atmosphere : mood or feeling in a place

atmosphere : اتمسفر

lyrical : expressing emotions in a beautiful way

lyrical : ابراز احساسات بطور زیبا

blubbing : crying in a loud way

blubbing :بلند گریه کردن

sucker for something : unable to resist something

sucker for something :قادر به مقاومت در برابر چیزی نیست

crucial : extremely important

crucial :حیاتی

tension : (here) nervous feeling

tension : تنش، اضطراب

suspense : excited or nervous feeling when waiting for something to happen

suspense :تعلیق

Transcript of the podcast

پادکست BBC شماره 236 - Life without music

پادکست BBC 6 minute English Life without music

Rob
Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I’m Rob…

Neil
…and I’m Neil. Hello.

Rob
Hello, Neil! What tune are you humming, there?

Neil
Was I humming? Oh, I woke up with it in my head. It’s that song – you know (hums a song).

Rob
No idea, what you’re talking about, Neil, but it’s very annoying, so could you just stop it please. 

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Neil
But there’s my problem. I can stop humming it out loud, but it keeps on repeating in my head (more humming). Did you know there’s a name for that, Rob? When a song keeps repeating in your head?

Rob
There’s a name? I don’t know what it is – but I’m sure you’re going to tell me.

Neil
You’re right! It’s an earworm.

Rob
Sounds nasty – is there a cure for that?

Neil
I don’t think so! So let’s move on. In this programme we’re talking about music – and how it influences us.

Rob
But first, Neil, can you answer this question: If a person has musical anhedonia, does it mean they…

a) hate music?

b) can’t enjoy music?

or c) can’t hear music?

Neil
Well, um, ‘anhedonia’ sounds like an illness, so I’m going to go for c) can’t hear music.

Rob
We’ll find out if you’re wrong or right later on. But now let’s listen to Professor Charles Spence telling us how music affects what we choose to eat and drink.

Charles Spence, Professor of Experimental Psychology, Oxford University
Imagine you’re going to the bar and thinking about a glass of wine. There’s French music playing behind the counter – more than likely you’ll go for a glass of French wine. German music behind the counter – your likelihood of choosing German wine goes way, way up. If they’re playing classical music you might be tempted to spend that little bit more.

Neil
What’s the likelihood of you spending more, Rob?

Rob
Quite likely, actually Neil – and likelihood means the chance of something happening. I love a good glass of wine.

Neil
Me too.  But why do we spend more when there’s classical music playing?

Rob
Good question. It makes us feel a bit classy – that’s stylish and sophisticated.

Neil
I’m guessing hip-hop doesn’t have the same effect. Am I right?

Rob
You’re always right, Rob. So, the professor is saying that bars and restaurants use music to manipulate their customers.

حتما این پست را بخوانید   زبان انگلیسی برای مهاجرت

Neil
And that means to control or influence them. Argh! Earworms! They’re messing with our minds!

Rob
I know, I know, and it doesn’t stop there. Restaurants also use the tempo – or speed – of the music to change people’s behaviour. A fast tempo gets customers in and out quickly at busy times. On the other hand, if there aren’t many customers, the restaurant might want to keep people in the place for longer. So they put on music with a slow tempo to create a more relaxed atmosphere.

Neil
And atmosphere, in this context, means the mood or tone in a place or situation. Now music is also used to create atmosphere in films. So let’s hear Debbie Wiseman talking about music in the movies.

Debbie Wiseman, Film/TV music composer
A director might come to me and say “look, can you help bring the romance to this scene with the music”, and so I might write something beautifully romantic and lyrical working with what I’ve got and suddenly the scene will feel much more romantic, much more tender, much more sexy, whatever it needs to feel, and the music has the power to do that, to achieve that effect.

Neil
Sexy, tender, lyrical, romantic – that’s emotional stuff! And lyrical actually means expressing strong emotions. So what’s your favourite romantic moment in a film, Rob?

Rob
Oh, there are so many. I’m a sucker for romance. Once the violins start playing, I start blubbing – and yes, Neil – that means I have a good cry!

Neil
So sweet! Now, if you’re a sucker for something, for example romance, it means you can’t resist it. I’m more of a sucker for horror myself…

Rob
And music is crucial – or extremely important – in creating atmosphere in horror films.

Neil
That’s very true. Music is often used to create tension and suspense – or feelings of anxiety and excitement.

Rob
Can you imagine Hitchcock’s Psycho without that violin music? (Neil does an imitation of the violin sequence from Psycho)

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Rob
OK, let’s not have a shower scene here in the studio, Neil. You’ll give me nightmares! Now, remember at the beginning of the show I asked you what musical anhedonia means. Is it someone who a) hates music b) can’t enjoy music or c) can’t hear music?

Neil
I said can’t hear music…

Rob
And that’s the wrong answer. It’s actually b) can’t enjoy music.

Neil
Not a great job for a DJ then. Anyway, Rob, before we go any further, how about those words again?

Rob
OK, the words we heard today were:

earworm

musical anhedonia

likelihood

classy

manipulate

tempo

atmosphere

lyrical

blubbing

sucker for something

crucial

tension

suspense

Neil
Well, that brings us to the end of today’s 6 Minute English. Try not to catch musical anhedonia and watch out for those earworms! We hope you enjoyed humming along to today’s programme. Please join us again soon.

Both
Bye.

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