زمان تقریبی مطالعه: ۹ دقیقه

پادکست BBC شماره ۲۳۵

سلام با دویست و سی و پنجمین سری از پادکست‌های BBC 6 Minute English در خدمت شما هستیم.

در این قسمت درباره اینکه آیا می‌شود از روی چشمان به شخصیت یک نفر پی برد؟ صحبت میشه. یافته اصلی در مطالعه دانشمندان این است که می توان فقط به حرکات چشم نگاه کرد و سپس چیزی در مورد شخصیت آنها حدس زد. قبل از مطالعه آنها ، به هیچ وجه مشخص نبود که آیا این امر می تواند از حرکات چشم درباره شخصیت انسانها چیزی دانست.

در زیر کلمات کلیدی که باید با آن‌ها آشنا شوید برایتان توضیح داده شده‌اند:

commodity : something that can be bought and sold 

commodity : کالا

speculate : make a guess about something based on experience or limited information

speculate : فکر کردن، بر اساس تجربه یا اطلاعات محدود حدس بزنید

fluctuations : changes in prices

fluctuations : نوسان قیمت

vulnerable : easy to change

vulnerable : قابل تغییر

makes waves : have a big effect

makes waves : یک اثر بزرگ

provides for : have enough income to live comfortably

provides for : داشتن درآمد کافی برای زندگی راحت

labour intensive : employing a lot of people

labour intensive : استخدام تعداد زیادی کارفرما

package : put a product in a packet or box before selling

package : پک کردن محصول قبل فروش

profitable : to have enough income to live comfortably

profitable : سودبخش

Transcript of the podcast

پادکست BBC شماره 235 -The story behind coffee

پادکست BBC 6 minute English – The story behind coffee

Rob
Hello, I’m Rob. Welcome to 6 Minute English. With me today is Neil. Hello, Neil.

Neil
Hello Rob!

Rob
In this programme we’re going to be talking about coffee.

Neil
Coffee? I’ve actually got one here in front of me, Rob.

Rob
What kind of coffee are you drinking?

Neil
It’s a skinny latte. And what’s that that you’ve got?

Rob
I’ve gone for a flat white today. (Sound of sipping) Mmm. That tastes good.

Neil
Looks good too! The market for the world’s most popular drink has come a long way since the days of instant coffee, when we just added boiling water to some brown powder.

Rob
Yes, that’s very true, Neil. After that came the giants like Starbucks and Costa Coffee who made coffee drinking trendy and a lifestyle statement. People are far more aware of what they’re drinking these days.

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Neil
But Rob, I don’t think we should forget what lies behind the coffee we enjoy every day. It’s a hugely complicated business.

Rob
Yes, it’s the second biggest commodity in the world, after oil. That means the price of coffee is changing every day, every hour even, as traders speculate about the price.

Neil
It means farmers in countries like Ethiopia, Costa Rica and Brazil are dependent on the deals that are made in commodity markets thousands of miles from their farms. It makes them extremely vulnerable.

Rob
Let’s listen to food journalist Sheila Dillon as she explains the impact of coffee markets on local growers. She uses an expression that means “has a big effect”. Can you tell me what it is?

INSERT
Sheila Dillon, Food Journalist
What happens in the coffee markets makes waves around the globe. Entire national economies depend on the price of coffee. It’s the key to whether individual farmers can provide for their families, face unemployment and ultimately whether whole communities stay on the land or trek to the cities.

Neil
She said “makes waves”. This means “have a big effect”.

Rob
She also used the expression “provide for” their families. This means the farmer’s family have enough income to live comfortably. Good. Right. So what about our quiz question today? Neil do you know many cups of coffee are drunk worldwide each year? Is it:

a)           38 billion

b)          400 billion

c)           950 billion

Neil
Well, it’s going to be a huge number, of course. But I still think I’ll go for the lowest figure, which is 38 billion.

Rob
Well, we’ll see if you got the right answer at the end of the programme.

Neil
Now, the price of coffee has soared – that means gone up quickly – in recent years, Rob. Surely that’s good for everyone involved in the business? I believe the profit margins for coffee are among the highest in the world. I can’t see what all the fuss is about.

حتما این پست را بخوانید   دوره کار و تجارت

Rob
Well, Neil, just because the price is high, it doesn’t mean that everyone benefits. It all depends on how the profits are distributed. You see there are countless transactions between the grower and the drinker. A grower can have a really good crop, but the amount he makes stays the same – or can even fall.

Neil
Mmm, I see the problem. I expect most of the profits go to the commodity traders and very little to the individual growers of the bean. It sounds like the growers have no control. That’s what happens in other agricultural sectors.

Rob
I’m afraid so. Of course, some people are trying to distribute the profits more widely and they have been having some success.

Neil
Yes, I heard about some small-scale projects where the company takes charge of the whole process from field to shop.

Rob
Yes, these organisations tend to farm organically. This is very labour intensive – that means a lot of people are employed – and it creates a lot of jobs for people within the local community. In this way they are not victims of market fluctuations. Let’s listen to Leo Virmani, who runs a small plantation like this in Costa Rica. What’s the verb he uses for putting the coffee in a box before selling it?

INSERT
Leo Virmani, Coffee producer
For our plantation, the approach we have is to go through every step of the way – every step of the process – so that we grow it, we pick it, and we process it in the mill. Then eventually we’ll roast it, we’ll package it, and we’ll sell it as the small plantation we are. And that would allow us to stay or be profitable at the end of the day.

Neil
So, he used the verb “package”, which means “put a product in a packet or box before selling” it. 

Rob
And he said his community can stay “profitable” – this means they can always maintain profits – or make money.

Neil
Well, it’s good to know that small growers can live reasonably comfortably despite what the world markets are doing. The next time I grab a takeaway coffee I’ll try to remember all the politics involved in the production process.

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Rob
Yes, me too. So, shall we have the answer to the quiz question now?

Neil
Yes. You asked me how many cups of coffee are drunk worldwide each year – ۳۸ billion, 400 billion or 950 billion. And I guessed 38 billion.

Rob
I’m afraid you’re wrong – the answer is actually 400 billion.

Neil
No way.That’s incredible.

Rob
Yes, it’s an extraordinary statistic. Well, we’re almost out of time. So, let’s remind ourselves of some of the words we’ve said today, Neil.

Neil
commodity

speculate

fluctuations

vulnerable

make waves

provides for

labour intensive

package

profitable

Rob
Well, that’s it for today. Do visit bbclearningenglish.com to find more 6 Minute English programmes. Until next time. Goodbye!

Neil
Bye!

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