پادکست BBC شماره ۱۸۱ – It’s all in the genes
پادکست BBC شماره ۱۸۱
سلام با صد و هشتاد و یکمین سری از پادکستهای BBC 6 Minute English در خدمت شما هستیم.
در این قسمت درباره ژن انسانها صحبت میشه. برخی از بیماریهای ژنتیکی که درمانشان به ظاهر غیر ممکن به نظر میرسه امروزه به شکل اعجاب آوری درمان و اصلاح میشن. مشکلات ژنتیکی در طول تاریخ باعث از بین رفتن بسیاری از انسانها و مبتلا شدنشان به بیماریهای غیرقابل درمان شده.
در زیر کلمات کلیدی که باید با آنها آشنا شوید برایتان توضیح داده شدهاند:
gene editing : the ability to modify DNA
gene editing : اصلاح ژن
manipulate : modify or control
manipulate : اصلاح یا کنترل
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) : a substance in the cells of animals and plants that contains genetic information
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) : ماده ای در سلول های موجودات زنده که حاوی اطلاعات ژنتیکی است
gene : a part of the DNA in a cell that controls the growth and behaviour of a living thing and is passed on from its parents
gene : انسانها که از والدین به ارث میرسد DNA بخشی از
dystopian : an imaginary society where people are unhappy and afraid
dystopian : انجمن روانشناختی افراد جامعه
scanning : searching carefully
scanning : با دقت جستجو کردن
snip : cut
snip : برش
faulty : not working properly
faulty : معیوب
catch : problem, often a hidden problem
catch : مشکل، اغلب یک مشکل پنهان
embryo : an animal developing in its mother’s womb
embryo : جنین
designer babies : babies whose genes have been selected to have certain desirable characteristics
designer babies : نوزادانی که ژنهای آنها انتخاب شده اند، دارای خصوصیات مطلوب خاصی هستند
open the door : make possible
open the door : امکان پذیر بودن
enhanced : improved
enhanced : بهبود یافته
discrimination : treating some people less fairly than others
discrimination : تبعیض
Transcript of the podcast
پادکست BBC 6 minute English – It’s all in the genes
Hello and welcome to 6 Minute English. I’m Sophie…
And I’m Neil. I was watching the news the other day, Sophie.
Learn anything interesting?
Yes, actually. UK scientists have been authorised by the government to genetically modify human embryos for research. What they can’t do though is implant modified embryos into women. They talked a lot about gene editing…
Can you explain to us what gene editing is?
Mmm… I think this means there are these letters in a code – A-B-C something… I can’t remember exactly…
Gene editing is the ability to manipulate – or control – DNA. And in case you didn’t know, DNA is short for deoxyribonucleic acid – this is a substance in the cells of animals and plants that contains genetic information. And a gene is part of the DNA in the cell that controls the physical development and behaviour of a plant or animal and is passed on from its parents.
Phew! Thanks for the science lesson, Sophie.
You’re welcome. Now here’s a question for you, Neil: Which science fiction film anticipates gene editing in a dystopian society where humans are genetically engineered? Is it…
or c) Blade Runner
Mmm… I don’t really understand the question but I’m going to say c) Blade Runner. What’s dystopian?
Dystopian means an imaginary society where people are unhappy and afraid. Well, moving on, let’s listen to BBC journalist Fergus Walsh talking about how gene editing works.
Fergus Walsh, BBC journalist
Think of gene editing as a molecular sat nav. It scans the DNA searching for the error. Then it uses molecular scissors to snip through both strands, which switches off the faulty gene. Or it can repair the code by inserting a healthy copy of the gene. These techniques raise the prospect of treating – even curing – some genetic diseases – and it’s not science fiction.
So DNA is a set of instructions for how our bodies work written using a chemical code of four letters – A, T, C, G. But sometimes the code contains mistakes.
Yes. You find spelling mistakes by scanning – or searching – through the DNA. Then you snip – or cut out – the mistake or faulty gene from the code using molecular scissors. Faulty by the way, means something that isn’t working properly – like the faulty brakes on my bike.
That sounds really dangerous, Neil!
Yeah, but I’m more worried about my faulty genes. I might have all sorts of genetic mistakes inside me.
That wouldn’t surprise me. But you’ve actually touched on a serious point. Latest research suggests all our bodies do contain genetic mistakes, some of which could cause disease. And as reporter Fergus Walsh said at the end of the clip, gene editing could be important for treating or even curing inherited genetic diseases. For patients with blood, immune, muscle or skin disorders it offers the possibility that their faulty cells could be removed, or changed in the lab, and then put back.
That sounds amazing. But is there a catch?
And that means a problem or drawback. Yes. Some people think that if editing the genes of a human embryo is allowed for curing disease, this will lead to editing the genes of embryos for reasons other than health. Let’s listen to Marcy Darnovsky, executive director of the Centre for Genetics and Society in California talking about her concerns.
Marcy Darnovsky, Centre for Genetics and Society
It’s too risky, we don’t need it, there are other ways to have healthy children, and it would open the door – possibly – to a world of genetic haves and have nots. We don’t need more inequality, we don’t need more discrimination in the world.
An embryo by the way is an animal or human starting to develop inside its mother. Marcy Darnovsky is against gene editing because it may be used to create designer babies – or babies whose genes have been selected to have certain desirable characteristics.
She says it may open the door – or make it possible – a situation where embryos are genetically enhanced – or improved – to be more intelligent or physically stronger, for example.
And this will lead to more discrimination in the world – which means treating some people less fairly than others…
…which is something that science fiction has been predicting for many years. It’s that dystopian society we were discussing earlier, Neil! Which science fiction film anticipates gene editing in a dystopian society where humans are genetically engineered? Is it… a) Robocop b) Gattaca or c) Blade Runner?
And I said c) Blade Runner.
Sorry, Neil! It was b) Gattaca. This 1997 sci-fi film centres on the character Vincent Freeman, who wasn’t genetically engineered, but is able to buy the genetic identity of another man in order to pursue his dream of travelling into space. The film’s title uses the letters G, A, T and C, which are the four chemical codes making up DNA.
Now here are today’s words:
open the door
Well, that’s the end of today’s 6 Minute English. Please do join us again soon!