زمان تقریبی مطالعه: ۱۰ دقیقه

پادکست BBC شماره ۳۰۹ :

سلام با سیصد و نهمین سری از پادکست‌های BBC 6 Minute English در خدمت شما هستیم.

انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۲۰۲۰ در ایالات متحده که در آن دونالد ترامپ، رییس جمهور آمریکا با جو بایدن، نامزد دموکرات ها روبرو است، بحث و جدال های زیادی ایجاد کرده. در ایالات متحده بسیاری از آرا به صورت دیجیتال داده می شود و برنامه هایی برای کمک گرفتن از هکرها برای کاهش خطر حملات سایبری در روز انتخابات وجود دارد. در پادکست BBC شماره ۳۰۹ راب و سام در مورد این برنامه ها بحث می کنند و در طول این مسیر واژگان جدیدی را به شما می آموزند.

در زیر کلمات کلیدی که باید با آن‌ها آشنا شوید برایتان توضیح داده شده‌اند:

volunteer: (داوطلب)
someone who works willingly without being paid, because they want to 

hacker: (هکر)
someone who breaks into computer systems without permission in order to find information or do something illegal 

eligible: (واجد شرایط)
qualified to do something by having the necessary requirements 

high-profile:(سرتیتر)
attracting a lot of attention and interest from the public, newspapers and the media 

(have) the keys to the castle: (اطلاعات و دانش کلیدی)
(idiom) information or knowledge which gives the possessor access to power 

cybersecurity: (امنیت سایبری)
measures that are taken to protect organisations and their computer information against crimes and attacks carried out through the internet

This week’s question

In 2000 the presidential race between Al Gore and George W. Bush ended in recounts and disputes over missing votes. George Bush became the first modern president to win the election despite gaining fewer popular votes than his opponent. How many fewer votes than Gore did Bush win by in the 2000 American presidential election? 

a) half a million votes

b) a million votes 

c) two million votes

Listen to the programme to find out the answer. 

پادکست BBC شماره 309

پادکست بی بی سی BBC 6 minute English – Hacking help for US elections

Note: This is not a word-for-word transcript  

Rob
Hello. This is 6 Minute English from BBC Learning English. I’m Rob. 

Sam
And I’m Sam.

Rob
When it comes to US presidential elections, some are more dramatic than others. 

Sam
But few elections have been as controversial as this November’s contest between current President Trump and his Democratic rival, Joe Biden. 

Rob
In America, where many votes are cast digitally, there is a risk of cyber-attacks on election day and with so much depending on the result, US election officials are worried. 

حتما این پست را بخوانید   پادکست BBC شماره 160 - Do adults exercise enough

Sam
In this programme we’ll be hearing about plans to prevent election cyber-attacks which involve election officials working with a very unusual group of people: volunteer hackers. Volunteers are people who work willingly, without being paid… 

Rob
… and hackers are people who break into computer systems without permission in order to find information or do something illegal. 

Sam
But cyber-attacks from hackers are not the only threat to fair and democratic elections. 

Rob
In 2000 the presidential race between Al Gore and George W. Bush ended in recounts and disputes over missing votes. George Bush became the first modern president to win the election despite gaining fewer popular votes than his opponent – but how many fewer? That’s our quiz question – how many fewer votes did Bush win than Gore in the 2000 American presidential election? Was it:
a) half a million votes?,
b) a million votes?,  or
c) two million votes?

Sam
I’ll say b) a million votes. 

Rob
OK, we’ll find out later. Now, the project Sam mentioned, where official administrators team up with expert volunteers to keep the election secure, is called The Election Cyber Surge

Sam
BBC World Service programme Digital Planet met up with project organiser Maya Worman to discuss the importance of keeping the election free from interference.

Maya Worman
Any attempt to manipulate or interfere with election infrastructures – the machines or the information sets that determine who is eligible to vote and where – undermines the right to vote. And it puts burdens on voters and it impacts public confidence; and high-profile elections, especially like the one coming up, heighten the types of risks that we’re talking about. 

Rob
You can only vote in an election if you are eligible – qualified by having the necessary requirements, for example being a US citizen who’s aged 18 or over. 

Sam
It’s up to each of the eight thousand local jurisdictions around the United States to keep their area free from cyber-attacks and misinformation – risks which have increased because the coming election is so high-profile – attracting a lot of attention and interest from newspapers and the public.

Rob
The Cyber Surge project to put expert volunteers in touch with local officials aims to prevent these risks. It covers everything from making sure administrators are using the latest anti-virus software to more serious threats from troublemakers. 

حتما این پست را بخوانید   پادکست BBC شماره 248 - Is a game just a game

Sam
Now that’s got me thinking actually, Rob. Suppose I’m a troublemaker who wants to influence the election result – so I sign up as a volunteer and gain access to all kinds of information. How do we know that the volunteers who sign up are trustworthy? 

Rob
That’s a good question, Sam, and one that BBC World Service programme, Digital Planet, put to Maya Worman. 

Maya Worman
The expectation is not that the volunteer will have the keys to the castle by any means, more that they will have an open dialogue with an election administrator who wants to know more to explore cybersecurity enhancements in general or specifically. 

Sam
Volunteers are carefully selected according to their experience and skills in cybersecurity – measures that help organisations and countries keep their computer information safe against crimes and attacks carried out through the internet. 

Rob
Volunteers share their expert advice by talking with election officials. They won’t be given access to sensitive information so they won’t have the keys to the castle – an idiom meaning to possess information or knowledge which gives the possessor access to power. 

Sam
All of which means that the 2020 election result will, hopefully, be accepted by everyone. 

Rob
Unlike the situation twenty years ago. 

Sam
Ah, you mean our quiz question, Rob, about the 2000 US presidential election which George W. Bush won despite securing fewer votes than his opponent. 

Rob
I asked you how many fewer votes Bush won than Al Gore that year. 

Sam
And I said b) a million votes. 

Rob
But in fact, it was even closer – just a) half a million votes in Florida. 

Sam
In this programme we’ve been looking ahead to the US presidential elections and its cybersecurity – measures taken to protect countries and their computer information against online crimes and attacks. 

Rob
The Cyber Surge project aims to put officials in touch with volunteers – people who work for free, who also happen to be expert hackers – people who break into computer systems without permission. 

Sam
But the idea isn’t to commit election crime – rather to prevent it by making sure only those who are eligible – or qualified – to vote, do so. 

Rob
The project was set up because the November 2020 election has become so high-profile – attracting a lot of attention and interest from the public and the media. 

Sam
And of course the volunteers themselves are carefully chosen to be impartial experts who give advice without holding the keys to the castle – an idiom about possessing information which gives access to power. 

حتما این پست را بخوانید   پادکست BBC شماره 161 -Why pay for bottled water

Rob
What’s certain is that the world will be watching this election, so if you’re eligible, remember to vote. 

Sam
And remember to join us again soon. Bye for now! 

Rob
Bye bye! 

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همچنین برای گوش دادن به پادکست های سطح بندی شده British Council می توانید به صفحه ی پادکست British Council آکادمی مجازی آموزش زبان ۲۴talk مراجعه کنید.

گوش دادن به پادکست روش خوبی برای تقویت مهارت شنیداری و هم چنین یادگرفتن کلمات در بستر یک موضوع خاصه که این به تقویت مهارت مکالمه انگلیسی نیز کمک زیادی می کنه.

اگه دنبال این هستی که مهارت های مکالمه زبان انگلیسیت رو بیشتر از این تقویت کنی بهت پیشنهاد میکنم در دوره‌ی مکالمه زبان انگلیسی آکادمی مجازی آموزش زبان انگلیسی ۲۴talk شرکت کنی که با یه برنامه منسجم و خلاقانه کمک میکنه در زمان کوتاه بتونی به راحتی و روانی انگلیسی صحبت کنی.